AP Chapter 12 Study Guide

1) What were the positive and negative effects of Confucianism during the Song-Tang Era? What were the aspects of economic prosperity during the Tang-Song era?

 A positive effect on Confucianism during the Song-Tang Era was that the teachings of Confucianism was improved and spread through out. Also, there were more and more scholars than ever before during the Song-Tang Era, which helped restore the imperial bureaucracy in China. Some negatives were Confucianism made other beliefs false and did not accept the beliefs of others, therefore ideas were not passed around and this was a setback to inventing newer innovations. Another negative would be Confucianism influenced the examination system, but it proved to be faulty, because the system would be based of birth, and sometimes children of amazing smart people, are not always like there parents. During the Tang-Song Era, paper money was being used more frequently. During this era, the Chinese depended on trade with Eurasian countries. New agricultural practices were created and the land was divided more equally between the free peasants, and therefore there were high yields.

2) How did the Sui rise to power and why did they collapse?

 Wendi, one of the rulers of China during the time of division, took power from the Zhou ruler, by getting his daugther to marry the emporer and then getting rid of the emperor himself. Wendi helped unite most of the land, and helped capture most of southern China. Wendi’s son Yangdi killed his father, Wendi, and then took control of the whole empire. Yangdi was not a great emporer, because he created many wars with Korea, and started to irritate the low class citizens because he was making them do all his dirty work. Finally the citizens revolted against Yangdi and the Sui dynasty fell.

3) What accounts for the decline of the Tang dynasty? In what ways was the Song Empire weaker than the Tang dynasty?

 The Tang dynasty declined because of the fighting and quarreling within the royal family. Members of the royal family would kill each other to put themselves in a better position to rule the whole empire. Feuding like this distracted the current emporer and would not allow him to do his real duty as serving his people, but he would have to take care of himself and watch his own back. This led to the decline of the Tang dynasty as the people of China were being neglected. The Song Empire was weaker than the Tang dynasty, because during the Song empire, the military force of China was not very powerful. They could not defeat their rival, Liao, but instead they had to opt to signing peace treaties and losing some land that could have been theirs.

4) What was the status of women during the Tang-Song era?

The status of women were still secondary to men. Men still had more rights than women, while women had little rights or no rights at all. Women were considered to just stay at home all day and raise the children. Men could have as many wives as they pleased, while women had to be faithful to their husband, and they also had to be abstinent until marriage, but men could lose their virginity whenever. Clearly the status of women was no where close to the status of men.

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